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March 16, 2023

The climate is mostly tropical savanna and influenced by the monsoon pattern.[63] There is a distinct rainy season from May to October, followed by a dry season from November to April. Local tradition holds that there are three seasons (rainy, cool and hot) as the latter two months of the climatologically defined dry season are noticeably hotter than the earlier four months.[63]

Human rights!

Human rights violations remain a significant concern in Laos.[97][98] In The Economist's Democracy Index 2016 Laos was classified as an "authoritarian regime", ranking lowest of the nine ASEAN nations included in the study.[99][100] Prominent civil society advocates, human rights defenders, political and religious dissidents, and Hmong refugees have disappeared at the hands of Lao military and security forces.[101]

Ostensibly, the Constitution of Laos that was promulgated in 1991 and amended in 2003 contains most key safeguards for human rights. For example, Article 8 makes it clear that Laos is a multinational state and is committed to equality between ethnic groups. The constitution also contains provisions for gender equality, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of press and assembly.[102] On 25 September 2009, Laos ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, nine years after signing the treaty. The stated policy objectives of both the Lao government and international donors remain focused upon achieving sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction.[103][104]

However, the government of Laos frequently breaches its own constitution and the rule of law, since the judiciary and judges are appointed by the ruling communist party. According to independent non-profit/non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Amnesty International,[105] Human Rights Watch,[106] and Civil Rights Defenders,[107] along with the US State Department,[108] serious human rights violations such as arbitrary detentions, disappearances, free speech restrictions, prison abuses and other violations are an ongoing problem. Amnesty International raised concerns about the ratification record of the Lao government on human rights standards and its lack of co-operation with the UN human rights mechanisms and legislative measures—both impact negatively upon human rights.[98] The organisation also raised concerns in relation to freedom of expression, poor prison conditions, restrictions on freedom of religions, protection of refugees and asylum-seekers, and the death penalty.[105]

In October 1999, 30 young people were arrested for attempting to display posters calling for peaceful economic, political and social change in Laos. Five of them were arrested and subsequently sentenced to up to 10 years imprisonment on charges of treason. They were to have been released by October 2009, but their whereabouts remain unknown.[105] Later reports have contradicted this, claiming they were sentenced to 20 years in prison.[109] In late February 2017, two of those imprisoned were finally released after 17 years.[110]

Some really crazy nested bullets

  • Bullet
  • Another
  • Another bullet
  • Cervical dystonia. Several treatment options can be used to help adults with cervical dystonia.
    • Nested bullet
    • Again nested
      • Nested even more
      • Wow
      • Wee
    • Ok let’s get less crazy
    • Even less
      • We’re nesting again
      • Ok this is getting old
    • Let’s get back to the top
    • One more time
  • Ok
  • Now we’re back to the first level again
    • But we could start nesting again
    • Something like this
      • Or even this
    • Wouldn’t be entirely unexpected

Ordered list

  • Bullet
  • Another
  • Another bullet
  • Cervical dystonia. Several treatment options can be used to help adults with cervical dystonia.
    • Nested.
    • Nested again.
  • First level numeric
  • Still numeric
    1. Nested numeric
      1. Nested numeric third level
      2. Another
      3. Yet another
      4. Fox
      5. Fox
      6. Foooooooox
      7. Wolf
      8. f
    2. Back to second level
    3. One more nested ordered list bullet
  • Back to the top
  • Final
    • Final a
    • Final b

I want to change the world

How is torticollis treated?

Treatments for torticollis are different, depending on the cause of the condition.

  • Congenital torticollis:
    • Physical therapy. Babies with congenital torticollis may find symptom relief from stretching exercises that a doctor or physical therapist can show parents how to perform at home. The exercises are intended to stretch out the tight neck muscle so that the head rests in a neutral position rather than at an angle. “Tummy time”—putting a baby on their stomach to strengthen the neck muscles—can also help. Parents will also learn how to minimize the risk of flat head syndrome, which can occur when a baby frequently lies down with their head turned in the same direction. Additionally, some babies might benefit from physical therapy or from wearing a collar (during waking hours) that keeps the head and neck in a neutral position.
    • Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections. If physical therapy and stretching aren’t effective treatments, some babies can receive Botulinum toxin injections, which can relax the tight neck muscle and resolve the problem.
    • Surgery. In less than 10% of cases, surgery is needed to help lengthen the tight neck muscle or correct a vertebral problem. This surgery usually occurs when the child is 6 years old.
  • Acquiredtorticollis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and a neck collar can help to treat the condition. In some cases, children will also benefit from a muscle relaxant.
  • Cervical dystonia. Several treatment options can be used to help adults with cervical dystonia:
    • Physical therapy
    • A neck collar
    • Heat therapy
    • Neck traction
    • Treating an underlying illness or injury that caused torticollis
    • Deep brain stimulation
    • Surgery, if other treatments aren’t helpful

Test bullets:

Between 30 July and 2 August 2010, a series of attacks:

On 23 November 2020, a Congolese:

  • court sentenced the former NDC leader, Ntabo Ntaberi Sheka
    • to life imprisonment for war crimes, including m
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  • Fkskflskfer, rape, sexual enslavement and the recruitment of children for crimes committed between 2007 to 2017 in Walikale territory.2 The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) provided protection to victims and witnesses, and technical, logistical and financial support to the Congolese judicial authorities during joint investigations and the trial.
  • In many ways, this case illustrates the importance of support to national justice and security institutions by United Nations peace operations. Such support is essential in the mitigation of potential drivers of conflict. It is particularly critical in settings where there is a lack of trust between the population and State representatives, or a desire by those affected to take justice into their own hands. Outcomes such as those in the case against the former NDC leader strengthen the credibility, legitimacy and accountability of State institutions, including security forces, and help preserve and protect human rights.
  • The absence of justice directly fuels conflict. A young man whose friends or relatives have been victimized may become a recruit for illegal armed groups. Lack of justice, be it actual or perceived, causes resentment and conflict at both the individual and societal levels.
  • Fundamental reform of justice and security systems takes decades. Most importantly, the absence of a tradition of an independent or representative and inclusive judiciary can constitute a fundamental impediment to reform.
  • United Nations peace operations that provide support to national justice and security institutions are governed by United Nations Security Council resolutions. These mandates fall historically within three broad categories: executive support, capacity-building support and direct security support. The overall objective remains to strengthen national capacities; extend the authority of the State; and enhance the effectiveness and inclusiveness of justice and security
  • institutions as well as confidence in those institutions, with a view to preventing violence, fighting impunity and sustaining peace. This assistance is provided primarily from the perspective of reinforcing the criminal justice chain—comprising law enforcement, judicial and prison institutions—a central component for stabilization and security efforts in conflict and post-conflict settings.
  1. In a landmark report issued in 2011,3 the World Bank demonstrated
    1. the critical relationship between strong justice and security institutions, job creation and the mitigation of cycles of violence. This is certainly the case in conflict and post-conflict societies, where State-level leadership, a clear vision and comprehensive
    2. objectives are crucial for justice and security reform. In contrast, the absence of leadership or resistance to reform by key stakeholders are often significant obstacles to meaningful development or sustainable security.
    3. Fundamental reform of justice
    4. and security systems takes decades. Mo
    5. st importantly, the absence of a tradition of a
  2. In independent or representative a
  3. Given this long-term endeavour, peace operations can, however, have an immediate impact by focusing on specific initiatives, particularly in relation to accountability for crimes that act as drivers of conflict and instability. This is done in contexts where corruption and patronage often serve vested, key interests for those in power who may want to maintain the status quo. Furthermore, prison reform is rarely considered a major priority, as detained persons are among the most disenfranchised individuals in society.


1. Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 8 October 2010, S/2010/512, paragraph 8.

2. Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 30 November 2020, S/2020/1150, paragraph 44.

3. The World Bank, World Development Report: Conflict, Security and Development, 2011, ISBN: 978-0-8213-8500-5.

About the author

Stéphane Jean is a Judicial Officer and Mission Coordinator in the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions of the United Nations Department of Peace Operations. He has served as a rule of law expert with United Nations peace operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Kosovo and Mali, including as Chief of the Justice Section of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and Deputy Chief of the Justice and Corrections Section of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).